Monday 10 June 2024


Overview of the Sri Lankan Education System


The Sri Lankan education system is structured to provide comprehensive education from primary school through to tertiary education. Here's an in-depth look at its structure, key components, and recent developments.

Primary Education (Grades 1-5)

Duration: 5 years
Age Group: 5-10 years


  • Basic subjects include Sinhala/Tamil (based on the medium of instruction), English, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies.
  • Emphasis on foundational literacy and numeracy skills.
  • Introduction to environmental studies, religion, and creative subjects like arts and crafts.


  • Grade 5 Scholarship Exam: A national examination that tests students on Mathematics and their mother tongue. Success in this exam can lead to scholarships and admission to more prestigious schools.

Secondary Education

Junior Secondary (Grades 6-9) Duration: 4 years
Age Group: 10-14 years


  • Continuation of primary subjects with increased complexity.
  • Introduction to new subjects such as History, Geography, Civics, and Health & Physical Education.

Senior Secondary (Grades 10-11) Duration: 2 years
Age Group: 15-16 years


  • Core subjects include Mathematics, Science, English, and the mother tongue (Sinhala/Tamil).
  • Optional subjects: Students can choose from a range of subjects including Commerce, Arts, Technology, and more specialized sciences.


  • GCE O-Level Exam: Conducted at the end of Grade 11. It is a crucial examination determining eligibility for Advanced Level studies. Subjects typically include a combination of core and optional subjects.

Advanced Level (Grades 12-13)

Duration: 2 years
Age Group: 17-19 years

Streams: Students typically choose one of the following streams based on their career aspirations and interests. Each stream offers a set of subjects tailored to specific fields of study.

1. Science Stream:

  • Core Subjects: Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Combined Mathematics, and ICT.
  • Career Pathways: Medicine, Engineering, Physical Sciences, Biological Sciences, and Information Technology.

2. Commerce Stream:

  • Core Subjects: Accounting, Business Studies, Economics, Commerce, and ICT.
  • Career Pathways: Accounting, Business Management, Economics, Banking, Finance, and Entrepreneurship.

3. Arts Stream:

  • Core Subjects: Languages, History, Geography, Political Science, Logic and Scientific Method, Sociology, Aesthetic Subjects.
  • Career Pathways: Humanities, Social Sciences, Law, Education, Journalism, Fine Arts, and Public Administration.

4. Technology Stream:

  • Core Subjects: Science for Technology (SFT), Engineering Technology (ET), Bio-Systems Technology (BST), General English, and ICT.
  • Optional Subjects: Mathematics, Project Work.
  • Career Pathways: Engineering, Technology, Bio-Technology, Agriculture, Environmental Science, Vocational Training, and Technical Careers.


  • GCE A-Level Examination: Conducted at the end of Grade 13. The results are crucial for university admissions, with students needing a competitive Z-score to enter their desired programs.
  • Practical Assessments: Practical components and projects are often evaluated alongside written examinations.

Tertiary Education

Universities and Higher Education Institutes:

  • Governed by the University Grants Commission (UGC).
  • Types of Institutions: Public universities, private universities, vocational training institutes, and technical colleges.
  • Programs Offered: Undergraduate degrees (Bachelor's), postgraduate degrees (Master's, PhDs), diplomas, and vocational training.


  • Based on GCE A-Level results and the Z-score, which is a normalized score used to rank students.
  • Competitive fields such as Medicine, Engineering, and Law often require very high Z-scores.

Key Features and Policies

Languages of Instruction:

  • Primary and secondary education is offered in Sinhala, Tamil, and English.
  • English is emphasized as a second language to improve global competitiveness.

Free Education:

  • Sri Lanka offers free education from primary school through university in public institutions.
  • This policy has contributed to high literacy rates and broad educational access.

Private and International Schools:

  • In addition to public schools, there are private schools and international schools.
  • These schools often follow different curricula (e.g., British, American) and cater to those seeking alternative educational pathways.


Resource Allocation:

  • There is a disparity in resources and facilities between urban and rural schools.
  • Urban schools typically have better infrastructure and access to qualified teachers.

Teacher Training:

  • Continuous need for improving teacher training and professional development.
  • Efforts are being made to enhance the quality of education through various teacher training programs.

Examination Pressure:

  • The national examinations, particularly the Grade 5 Scholarship Exam, GCE O-Level, and GCE A-Level, create significant pressure on students.
  • These high-stakes exams often influence students' future educational and career paths.

Recent Developments

  • Digital Education Initiatives: There has been a push towards incorporating digital technology in education, especially highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Curriculum Reforms: Ongoing efforts to update and reform the curriculum to better align with global standards and local needs.
  • Inclusive Education: Policies aimed at improving access to education for all students, including those with disabilities and from marginalized communities.


The Sri Lankan education system is comprehensive, offering a variety of pathways from primary education to tertiary education. It strives to provide free education to all students, ensuring broad access and high literacy rates. The introduction of the Technology Stream in Advanced Level education is a significant step towards meeting the demands of a modern, technology-driven world. While challenges such as resource allocation and examination pressure persist, ongoing reforms and initiatives aim to improve the quality and inclusivity of education in Sri Lanka.

Tuesday 1 August 2023


"Effective Classroom Management Strategies for Teachers: Creating a Positive Learning Environment"


As educators, we know that maintaining a positive and well-structured learning environment is essential for student success. Effective classroom management ensures that students feel safe, engaged, and motivated to learn. In this article, we will explore practical classroom management strategies that teachers can implement to foster a positive learning environment and optimize the learning experience for their students.

Set Clear Expectations:

Establishing clear and consistent expectations for behavior and academic performance is the foundation of effective classroom management. Communicate these expectations to your students at the beginning of the school year and reinforce them regularly. When students understand what is expected of them, they are more likely to stay on task and participate actively in the learning process.

Implement Positive Reinforcement:

Positive reinforcement is a powerful tool for encouraging desired behaviors in the classroom. Praise and reward students for their achievements, efforts, and good behavior. Whether it's a simple word of encouragement or a small token of appreciation, positive reinforcement fosters a positive and motivating atmosphere for learning.

Foster a Supportive Community:

Build a sense of community within your classroom by encouraging teamwork and collaboration. Create opportunities for students to work together on group projects or class activities. When students feel connected to their peers and know that they are part of a supportive community, they are more likely to engage in the learning process and show respect for one another.

Use Engaging Teaching Methods:

Incorporate a variety of engaging teaching methods and activities into your lessons. Utilize multimedia, hands-on activities, and interactive discussions to cater to different learning styles. Engaging lessons capture students' attention and reduce the likelihood of disruptive behavior.

Address Misbehavior Proactively:

Address misbehavior promptly and proactively. When disruptive behavior occurs, intervene calmly and respectfully. Instead of focusing solely on punishment, use misbehavior as an opportunity to teach appropriate behavior and conflict resolution skills.

Maintain a Structured Routine:

Consistency and routine are crucial for effective classroom management. Establish a daily schedule that outlines the activities and transitions throughout the day. When students know what to expect, they feel more secure and can better manage their time and behavior.

Encourage Student Ownership:

Empower students to take ownership of their learning and behavior. Involve them in setting classroom rules and consequences, allowing them to understand the importance of accountability. When students have a sense of ownership, they are more likely to respect classroom rules and engage responsibly.

Build Positive Relationships:

Develop positive relationships with your students by showing genuine interest in their lives and well-being. Take the time to listen to their concerns and celebrate their achievements. When students feel valued and cared for, they are more motivated to excel in the classroom.


Effective classroom management is a skill that can transform the learning experience for both teachers and students. By implementing these practical strategies, teachers can create a positive learning environment that promotes engagement, cooperation, and academic growth. A well-managed classroom fosters a love for learning and prepares students for success not only academically but also in their future endeavors.

Thursday 20 July 2023


Creating a Positive and Inclusive Classroom Culture: Strategies for Teachers



As teachers, one of our most significant responsibilities is to create a classroom environment where every student feels valued, respected, and included. A positive and inclusive classroom culture sets the foundation for effective teaching and learning. In this article, we will explore essential strategies that teachers can implement to foster a supportive and inclusive learning environment. Let's embark on this journey of creating a space where every student can thrive.

Emphasize Mutual Respect:

Establishing a culture of mutual respect is fundamental in cultivating a positive classroom atmosphere. Lead by example and show respect for every student, their ideas, and their backgrounds. Encourage students to respect one another's opinions and differences, promoting a safe space for open dialogue and learning.

Practice Active Listening:

Active listening is a powerful tool in building trust and understanding between teachers and students. Take the time to listen to your students' thoughts, concerns, and experiences. By valuing their perspectives, you create a sense of belonging, making students more willing to engage in the learning process.

Celebrate Diversity:

Acknowledge and celebrate the diversity present in your classroom. Incorporate multicultural content into your lessons and highlight the contributions of individuals from various backgrounds. By recognizing diversity, you foster a sense of pride in students' cultural identities and promote a richer learning experience for all.

Encourage Collaboration:

Promote collaborative learning experiences that encourage teamwork and cooperation. Assign group projects or activities that require students to work together and share ideas. Collaboration not only enhances learning but also helps students develop essential social skills.

Address Bullying and Negative Behaviors:

Proactively address bullying and negative behaviors in the classroom. Create a zero-tolerance policy for any form of harassment and ensure that students feel comfortable reporting incidents. Implement strategies to address conflicts peacefully, fostering a harmonious learning environment.

Set Clear Expectations:

Establish clear and consistent expectations for behavior and academic performance. Communicate these expectations to your students and ensure they understand the consequences of their actions. Clear guidelines help create a structured and safe environment where students can focus on their learning.

Incorporate Inclusive Teaching Strategies:

Adopt teaching strategies that cater to diverse learning needs. Use various instructional methods, such as visual aids, hands-on activities, and auditory cues, to accommodate different learning styles. An inclusive approach ensures that every student can actively participate and thrive in the learning process.

Cultivate a Growth Mindset:

Encourage a growth mindset in your classroom, emphasizing the idea that intelligence and abilities can be developed through effort and perseverance. Promote a culture where making mistakes is seen as a natural part of the learning journey, encouraging students to embrace challenges and learn from setbacks.

Provide Positive Feedback:

Offer regular positive feedback to your students. Recognize their efforts, progress, and achievements, no matter how small. Positive reinforcement fosters motivation and a sense of accomplishment, boosting students' confidence in their abilities.

Engage Families and Communities:

Involve families and communities in the learning process. Establish open communication channels with parents, informing them of their child's progress and involving them in school activities. Engaging families creates a support network that reinforces positive behaviors and enhances student success.


Creating a positive and inclusive classroom culture is a continuous journey that requires dedication and a genuine commitment to the well-being of every student. By implementing the strategies discussed in this article, teachers can foster an environment where students feel safe, supported, and eager to learn. Let us embrace our roles as educators, working together to shape a better and more inclusive future for our students.

Tuesday 18 July 2023


Empowering Teachers: A Guide to Professional Development for Lifelong Growth



As educators, we understand that the journey of learning never truly ends. To thrive in our classrooms and make a lasting impact on our students, it's essential to continually enhance our knowledge and skills through professional development. In this post, we will explore the concept of professional development for teachers and provide practical guidance on how to embark on a path of lifelong growth. Let's dive in!

Understanding the Importance of Professional Development:

Begin by acknowledging the significance of professional development in teaching. Explore the benefits it offers, such as improving instructional practices, staying up-to-date with educational trends, and fostering personal and career growth. Recognize that investing in professional development is an investment in both your students and yourself.

Identifying Your Goals and Areas of Growth:

Reflect on your teaching practice and identify specific goals and areas where you would like to grow. Consider aspects such as classroom management, assessment strategies, technology integration, or specialized subject knowledge. Setting clear objectives will help guide your professional development journey.

Exploring Available Professional Development Opportunities:

Discover the wide array of professional development opportunities available to teachers. These can include workshops, conferences, online courses, webinars, and collaborative networks. Research reputable sources and organizations that align with your goals and offer relevant resources and support.

Developing a Personalized Professional Development Plan:

Craft a personalized professional development plan that outlines your goals, desired outcomes, and a timeline for achieving them. Consider a mix of short-term and long-term goals and identify the steps and resources needed to attain them. This plan will serve as a roadmap for your ongoing growth.

Embracing Reflective Practices:

Reflection is a powerful tool for professional development. Embrace reflective practices, such as journaling, self-assessment, and peer collaboration, to deepen your understanding of your teaching practice. Regularly evaluate your progress, celebrate successes, and identify areas for further improvement.

Building a Professional Learning Network:

Connect with like-minded educators by building a professional learning network (PLN). Engage in online communities, join social media groups, and participate in educational chats and forums. Collaborating with other teachers provides opportunities for sharing ideas, resources, and support.

Implementing and Evaluating New Strategies:

Take what you learn from your professional development experiences and implement new strategies in your classroom. Experiment with innovative approaches, instructional technologies, or student-centred methodologies. Continuously evaluate the impact of these strategies on student learning and adjust as needed.

Reflecting on the Journey:

Regularly reflect on your professional development journey. Celebrate milestones and achievements, learn from challenges, and adjust your goals as you grow. Remember that professional development is a lifelong process, and your dedication to growth will positively impact both your teaching and your student's learning.


Professional development is not just a requirement; it is a transformative journey that empowers teachers to become lifelong learners. By embracing professional development opportunities and following a personalized growth plan, you can enhance your teaching practice, inspire your students, and contribute to the advancement of education as a whole. Embrace the journey, and never stop learning!

Friday 17 March 2023


Welcome to

 Welcome to ""!

As teachers, we all know that learning never stops. There is always something new to discover, a new strategy to try, or a new way to engage our students. This blog is dedicated to all the educators out there who are committed to growing and developing professionally.

My name is A.M. Mohamed Sihath, and I am thrilled to be launching this blog as a platform to share my ideas, experiences, and insights on teaching and learning. I have been an educator for 10 years, and I have a passion for helping other teachers improve their practice. Through this blog, I hope to create a community where we can learn from each other, share our successes and challenges, and support each other on our professional journeys.

In this blog, you can expect to find a wide range of topics related to teacher professional development. I'll be sharing strategies for classroom management, tips for creating engaging lessons, advice on differentiating instruction, and much more. I'll also be featuring guest posts from other educators, so you can learn from a variety of perspectives and experiences.

By continually developing our skills and knowledge, we can positively impact our students and create a brighter future for all. I hope this blog will be a valuable resource for you, and I look forward to learning and growing with you.

Thank you for joining me on this journey!


Ali Maraikkar Mohamed Sihath

MA Education (Innovation in Learning & Teaching), UK

MSc in IT (UoP), Sri Lanka.


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Overview of the Sri Lankan Education System

  The Sri Lankan education system is structured to provide comprehensive education from primary school through to tertiary education. Here&#...